As mandated by the 1987 Constitution, the Government of the Republic of the Philippines operates under a presidential system. There are three branches of government, namely: the Executive, the Legislative and the Judiciary.
The Executive Branch
The Executive Branch is composed of the President, Vice President, Department Secretaries and other officers of the Executive Department.
The President is both chief of state and head of government. The President and the Vice President are elected on separate tickets by popular vote for 6-year terms.
The Legislative Branch
The bicameral Congress of the Philippines is composed of 24 Senators and 250 members of the House of Representatives. The Upper House is led by the Senate President while the Lower House is led by the Speaker of the House.
One half of the Senate is elected every three years. The members are elected by popular vote to serve 6-year terms.
The House of Representatives are composed of members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms and of a number of sectoral representatives appointed by the President.
The Judicial Branch
The Judicial Branch is cmposed of the Supreme Court and other lower courts established by law. The 15-member Supreme Court is appointed by the President upon the recommendation of the Judicial and Philippine Bar Council.
The Constitution bars the President from seeking a re-election after serving a single term of six years. The Vice President can seek re-election after serving the 6-yar term. The Senators can be re-elected for two consecutive terms while the Representatives can be re-elected for three consecutive terms.
Administrative divisions: 72 provinces and 61 chartered cities*; Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Angeles*, Antique, Aurora, Bacolod*, Bago*, Baguio*, Bais*, Basilan, Basilan City*, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Batangas City*, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Butuan*, Cabanatuan*, Capiz*, Cagayan, Cagayan de Oro*, Calbayog*, Caloocan*, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Canlaon*, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cavite City*, Cebu, Cebu City*, Cotabato*, Dagupan*, Danao*, Dapitan*, Davao City* Davao, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Dipolog*, Dumaguete*, Eastern Samar, General Santos*, Gingoog*, Ifugao, Iligan*, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Iloilo City*, Iriga*, Isabela, Kalinga-Apayao, La Carlota*, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Laoag*, Lapu-Lapu*, La Union, Legaspi*, Leyte, Lipa*, Lucena*, Maguindanao, Mandaue*, Manila*, Marawi*, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Mountain, Naga*, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Olongapo*, Ormoc*, Oroquieta*, Ozamis*, Pagadian*, Palawan, Palayan*, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Pasay*, Puerto Princesa*, Quezon, Quezon City*, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Roxas*, Samar, San Carlos* (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos* (in Pangasinan), San Jose*, San Pablo*, Silay*, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao*, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tacloban*, Tagaytay*, Tagbilaran*, Tangub*, Tarlac, Tawitawi, Toledo*, Trece Martires*, Zambales, Zamboanga*, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur
National holiday: Independence Day, 12 June 1898
Constitution: 2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987
Legal system: based on Spanish and Anglo-American law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
International organization participation: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO